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Hardware Components of AGV/AMR

Issuing time:2024-05-16 14:04Author:PhoenixPowerLink:

Hardware Components of AGV/AMR

Although AGV (Automated Guided Vehicle) andAMR (Autonomous Mobile Robot) exhibit significant differences in their levelsof intelligence, they share many common hardware components, primarilyincluding the following key parts:

Drive Mechanism: Typically consists ofelectric motors, reducers, brakes, and speed controllers, working together todrive the wheels or tracks of AGV/AMR, ensuring movement along predeterminedroutes or autonomously planned paths.

Navigation System: AGVs may utilize presetpath navigation methods such as magnetic strips, optical guidance, laserguidance, or QR codes.

AMRs tend to use SLAM (SimultaneousLocalization and Mapping) technology, constructing environment maps throughsensors like lidar, vision sensors, or other types of sensors, enablingreal-time self-localization and path planning.

Sensors: Including but not limited tolidar, cameras, ultrasonic sensors, infrared sensors, etc., used forenvironment perception, obstacle avoidance, and object recognition. AMRsheavily rely on these sensors to achieve high autonomy and flexibility.

Onboard Controller: This is one of the corecomponents of AGV/AMR, responsible for processing sensor data, executing pathplanning algorithms, controlling robot motion, and task operations.

For example, forklift-type AGVs use steerwheel motors for walking and turning functions, and hydraulic pump motors andcontrollers for fork lifting actions; whereas AMRs often use differentialwheels, utilizing speed differences between the wheels on both sides to achievestraight-line movement and rotation.

Power System: Most modern AGVs/AMRs arepowered by lithium batteries, ensuring long continuous operation and convenientcharging management.

Communication Module: Communication systemsenable interaction between AGV/AMR and upper-level systems, including wirelesscommunication modules and control panels. Currently, primarily using 5G andWi-Fi, these facilitate wireless communication with central management systems,other robots, or production equipment, enabling task assignment, statusreporting, and collaborative operations.

Mechanical Structure: Includes load-bearingplatforms, lifting mechanisms (as in forklift-type mobile robots), steeringdevices, etc., to meet the requirements of different application scenarios suchas material handling and assembly.

Safety Protection Devices: Safetyprotection systems comprise safety sensors, photoelectric switches, safetyedges, emergency stop buttons, sound and light alarms, collision detectionsensors, etc., ensuring maximum safety for vehicles, cargo, and personnel,especially in mixed human-robot environments, ensuring that robots can quicklystop in case of emergencies to ensure the safety of personnel and equipment.

In summary, whether it's AGV or AMR, thehardware components are designed to support their basic mobility, navigationcapabilities, environmental perception, intelligent decision-making, and thesafe and reliable execution of material handling tasks. With technologicaladvancements, AMRs increasingly emphasize improvements in computing power andautonomous navigation performance in hardware configurations.

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